In the case of the diagnosis of allergic diseases, there is the special problem that the disease symptoms - such as runny nose, asthma or eczema - are overwhelmed by an enormous amount of allergy-causing substances. In order to find out from the at least 20,000 hitherto scientifically known allergens, which is appropriate for the patient, it is necessary to use complex diagnostic methods. Allergy diagnostics generally take place in four stages.
1. Allergy diagnostics: Anamnesis
From the survey of the history of allergic diseases (anamnesis) already valuable information about the possible allergy trigger can be obtained. In addition, the domestic and occupational environment, living and nutritional habits as well as the at least orientated recording of the psycho-social environment are to be taken into account.
In particular, self-observed relationships between the allergic symptoms and possible allergens as well as the environmental conditions of a private and professional nature are to be recorded. Particularly important are the detection of the onset of disease (also possible "precautions") and the references to the primary allergen contact.
2. Skin Tests
Skin tests (Prick test, Intracutaneous test, Scratch test and rubbing test) are a foundation of allergy diagnostics. Here, samples of various substances (possible allergens) are applied to the skin and observed whether an allergic reaction occurs at this site (as a pustule or wheeze). Depending on the diagnostic objective, the physician may restrict himself and examine the suspected allergens by means of individual tests ("confirmation test"). In most cases, however, this is a search diagnosis, in which it is important to record as wide a range of allergens as possible by group extracts in a single session.
Skin tests lead to false results when antihistamines or corticosteroids are taken at the same time. Therefore, antihistamines should be avoided five days before an intended skin test. For infants , these tests are not ideal.
Prick test: Apply a drop of the test solution on the arm and then pierce the skin with the Prick lancet at about 1 millimeter deep. In the case of an existing allergy to the test substance, a whey has formed at this point after approximately 20 minutes. For allergies of the immediate type, the prick test is applied as a standard method. You can also Diagnosis the Diabetes.
Intracutaneous Test : In this case the allergen is injected with a needle into the skin. The intracutaneous test is about 10,000 times more sensitive than the Prick test, but more often results in false positive results, especially in food allergens.
Scratch Test : The skin is superficially scratched through the applied test solution. Because of the relatively large skin irritation, this test is not always clear. Therefore, the scratch test has become less important today.
Rubbing Test : The allergen is repeatedly rubbed back and forth on the inside of the forearm. This test is used when there is a high degree of sensitization of the patient. Since this test is carried out with the natural allergen, it is also suitable if the allergy-releasing substance is not available in an industrially prefabricated version.
Epicutant test (patch test): Patches with allergenic substance are glued to the skin (preferably back) and read after 24, 48 or 72 hours. This test is used to identify type IV allergens. Most of the Causes of Allergies.
3. Lab Tests
In the case of blood tests, the ability to react and specific sensitization to the investigated allergens in the laboratory are examined with the aid of blood samples. One criterion is the presence of specific IgE antibodies. The proportion of antibodies (immunoglobulin E) in the blood is measured using modern methods. Immunoglobulin E is formed as a reaction to the body-borne substances, to which the immune system of an allergic reaction is sensitive.
Blood tests are therefore recommended for allergy diagnosis, especially for babies and small children, as they are less stressful for the small patients, as only blood collection is required. Above all, however, there is no danger for the child, even if the child is overly sensitive. In addition, the use of drugs does not influence the result, while skin tests can be distorted as a result. Finally, the doctor can even predict the likely allergy career of his patient based on the results of the laboratory test and often prevent worse with appropriate counter-measures.
4. Provocation Test
The interpretation of the test results always requires a check by collecting a "follow-up" (Is the patient exposed to the allergen at all? Whether the IgE antibody determined by positive skin tests and / or blood tests corresponds to a current clinical efficacy of the respective allergen can only be finally clarified by direct testing at the respective organ using a provocation test.
Provocation Test : In the provocation test, the clinical symptom (for example conjunctivitis with redness and eye tears, asthma, rash, eczema) is reproduced by extensive imitation of the "natural" allergens.
It may sound paradoxical, but there are people who suffer from an anxiety disorder-including myself-and nothing so relaxing as horror movies. I asked an expert what this might be.
According to a recent study by the Robert Koch Institute, 15.3 percent of people in Germany suffer from a generalized anxiety disorder. Personally, certain things have worried me as a child - usually on a catastrophic scale, but completely disproportionate. When I was ten years old, I read something about comets in a museum.
I lay awake for weeks at night and was afraid that a comet would be able to rush straight to the ground at this very moment. As a teenager, I have thought that I could suffer from it, even in the rare fatal illness I heard on television. Nowadays, my fear manifests itself in a way that is difficult to explain to people who have not had such experiences: Do you know the feeling of being nervous? It's a bit like the fear that comes to you when you have a hangover and you know you've done something but do not know what. About the whole time.
I am lucky that my fears are so limited that I do not need medication. I trust in a mixture of balancing movement, low alcohol and the regular control of my own mental state. But if it gets really bad, then there is only one thing that really helps me reliably and instantly unfolds its effect: horror movies - the bloodthirsty, gloomy and disturbing, the better. It was only last week that I watched a deadly game : a low budget movie without much action but the more blood that Netflix has got two and a half stars. On the starting picture you can see a razor blade, which is held directly to someone's eye and threatens to cut the eyeball.
When I first noticed how effective the effect of this unconventional healing method is against fears, I'm totally freaked out: What's wrong with me? Am I a psychopath who finds consolation in the suffering of others? Is that only for me that way? Is not right with me? These questions I have asked members of the Reddit forum / r / anxiety.
Horror film are not an alternative to genuine medical and therapeutic help, but I have been flooded by answers from people who are the same. "I've also noticed that I feel better when I look at a Horror film," a user said. "A Horror film produces a different kind of fear-a fear that is not about myself."
"Yes," said another, "I think it's because you have a 'real' reason to be afraid."
"Most of the time I get frightened that someone could break in or I could face a ghost," confirms a Reddit user. "Everything else I've thought about before suddenly seems completely ridiculous."
To find out why some people treat themselves with Horror film themselves, I have spoken to Dr. Mathias Clasen from Aarhus University. He has researched the psychological effects of horror films for more than 15 years. "When you look at the effect of a Horror film, it can be encouraging as long as the negative emotions that the film provokes are controllable," explains Dr. Clasen, "There is also a psychological distance between us and the film Aware that what happens there is not genuine, or at least parts of our brain are aware that it is not genuine. Other parts-old structures in the limbic system-react as if it were genuine. "
He also explains that Horror film cause an escape or attack mechanism within us, which, however, is limited by the controlled environment. "It does not surprise me to hear that horror films have a therapeutic effect on people with fears," he says. "The genre gives us the opportunity to make voluntary-and in a controlled environment experiences with negative emotions."
Dr. Clasen has also assured me that I am not on the verge of chasing old Freddy-Krueger style. His theory, however, could not really explain why anxiety, paradoxically, leads to a more relaxed life.
Do I get rid of my real fears by putting them on screen in the form of serial kills?
If someone who is suffering from anxiety disorder looks at a Horror film, then he just stuffs himself with subterranean fears, like a kind of psychological inoculation against the real fear? Or are we just splashing on adrenaline? Dr. Maria Iron side works at Oxford University and is concerned with the subject of anxiety and depression. In her research she uses a method called non-invasive brain stimulation. In principle, small, harmless electric charges are delivered to the brain of the subjects in order to document the effects in groups of people with and without anxiety disorders. I asked them what happened exactly in my brain, when I was afraid, so from a scientific point of view. "There is a brain region,
I ask Dr. Irdon side what her theory is about anxiety and adrenaline. Can it be that my reaction to Horror film is explained? Do I get rid of my real fears by putting my fears in the form of serial killers on the screen? "Studies have shown that the response in the amygdala decreases with time when humans are shown again and again with the same image of a creepy face. In phobias, people are confronted with exposure to the origin of their phobia (e.g, narrow spaces or spiders), and over time, they learn that their experiences do not lead to a negative result, and thus fear decreases. This is similar to the idea with the horror films. However, I'm not sure if it would work,
I've always been on Horror film even then, when I was still a nervous, paranoid child. The best overnight parties for me were always the one with a girlfriend who had a big brother and a whole lot of horror movies on VHS - from Nightmare on Elm Street about The Exorcist to Halloween . We've always made the sound very soft in the event that their parents were reincarnating and caught us huddled and wrapped in our sleeping bags in front of the TV and feeling like members of a secret conspiracy.
Steph Hovey, assistant psychologist at the Tavistock Center and Great Ormond Street Hospital in London, explained to me that anxiety "develops from our childhood experiences, which also have an influence on how we see the world as adults." When I look at a Horror film So this could mean for me that I am confronted with my fears in a secure environment and next to someone I trust. "The memories of the entertaining Horror film abende with friends at that time can help you deal with your fear Because you know that you will not let anything happen to you, but you may be able to get a better armor to deal with these feelings. "
According to data from a baseline study conducted by the Robert Koch Institute in 2013, about 15.3 per cent of people in Germany suffer from anxiety disorders. Affected are 21.3 per cent of women and 9.3 per cent of men. At the last nationwide health survey in 1998, it was only 14 percent. However, when you look at global changes - from viral pandemics to international terrorism to Brexit and Donald Trump - this development is hardly surprising.
A couple of years ago, my roommate George and I did a Saw Marathon. We spent a weekend watching every single movie. It was so much fun that just a few months later, we added a Paranormal Activity Marathon. Since then, the whole has become such a small tradition. This is similar to the roller coaster ride, or when you share a sharp curry-it's slightly crazy and basically completely harmless, but you get the feeling of having "passed through" this moment together , Why Horror film have such a good effect on me, but in this inconceivably frightening world it can be quite reassuring to know.
In contrast to type 1 diabetes type 2 usually shows less typical symptoms and is therefore usually only discovered late. Frequently, unspecific symptoms occur such as fatigue, weakness, and performance impairment. Also frequent urge to urinate and increased thirst can be signs of diabetes: From a certain blood glucose concentration the excess glucose is excreted via the urine (so-called renal threshold). The sugar-containing urine draws more water than usual, so that the affected persons now have to leave much more water than before. The body compensates for the loss of fluid by creating a strong feeling of thirst.
Other diabetes symptoms may be:
Constant hunger feeling
Recurrent urinary tract infections
Badly healing wounds.
The hyperosmolar coma is rare, but typical of type 2 diabetes. In the case of extremely high blood glucose levels, the kidneys divert so much fluid that the body can no longer compensate for loss of drinking. The liquid shortage is on average eight to twelve liters. The body dries increasingly, it can come to consciousness disturbances up to the coma. The causes of hyperosmolar coma are often infectious diseases, treatment with diuretics or the intake of highly sugary food. Symptoms of Allergy.
Regular screening is important to recognize diabetes in good time Diagnosis: Detect diabetes
In order to recognize a type 2 diabetes as early as possible, it is important to participate regularly in the screening examinations and to check the blood glucose level. 7 Steps to Health big Diabetes Lie. This is especially true if you have an increased risk of diabetes. The doctor examines the blood, measures the blood pressure and checks the size and body weight. If diabetes remains undetected for years, cardiovascular disease, damage to the kidneys and eyes, and dangerous circulatory disorders on the feet and legs can develop. However, if diabetes or its pre-stages are recognized and treated in a timely manner, the disease and its sequelae can be avoided.
For the diagnosis of diabetes, the doctor measures the following values:
Fasting blood sugar
Occasional blood sugar (blood glucose measured at any time)
Oral glucose tolerance test
Long-term blood sugar (HbA 1c value)
Fasting blood sugar
The value is determined in the morning before breakfast, so sober. You should not eat anything at least four hours before the blood sampling and also avoid calorie-containing drinks, coffee, black tea and smoking. The fasting glucose or fasting glucose testifies to the presence of diabetes if the value is at least 126 mg / dl or 7.0 mmol / l in the blood plasma. Values between 110 and 125 mg / dl are considered marginal. There may be a diabetes pre-stage (disturbed glucose tolerance). For further testing, an oral glucose tolerance test (sugar load test) is often performed.
Oral glucose tolerance test
This study is used to identify pre-existing diabetes, in which the blood glucose is increased only at times, especially after eating. Three days before the examination you should eat normally and with enough carbohydrates as well as abstain from smoking. The test is performed in the morning in a sober condition, which means you should not eat 10 hours before. For the test drink a liquid with 75 g sugar. The blood glucose is measured before and two hours after drinking. If he is at least 200 mg / dl or 11.1 mmol / l after two hours, diabetes is present.
Opportunity Blood Sugar
In the presence of diabetes, the casual blood glucose is at least 200 mg / dl or 11.1 mmol / l.
Long-term blood sugar (HbA 1c value)
The HbA 1c (glycohemoglobin) is the dye of the red blood cells (hemoglobin), which is linked to sugar residues. This value indicates how high the concentration of the blood glucose was in the last six to eight weeks, and is therefore also referred to as long-term blood glucose or blood glucose memory. Diabetes occurs when the HbA 1c value is at least 6.5% or 48 mmol / mol. Also in the course of a diabetes treatment, the value is important: An increased HbA 1c indicates a poor adjustment of the blood glucose.
The range of possible allergies is enormous - whether pollen, grasses, animal hair, food, cosmetics, medicines or fragrances: When the immune system breaks against these actually harmless environmental substances, there can be many complaints: the eyes burn, the nose runs and itchy , Severe allergy sufferers even have breathing problems. In order to alleviate the symptoms of an allergy, often only renunciation and behavioral changes help. For certain allergies, however, a hypo-sensitization can lead to an alleviation of the symptoms.
Course of an allergic reaction
If the immune system overreacts on contact with normally harmless substances by looking at them as enemies and then forming antibodies, an allergic reaction occurs on the next contact with this substance. Antibodies such as immunoglobulin E ensure that corporeal defense cells release aggressive inflammatory substances. Histamine and other messengers then lead to swelling, itching, and dilated blood vessels. This reaction can be localized or affect the whole body depending on whether the nose, skin, bronchial tubes or the circulatory system are affected.
In addition to the reaction via antibodies, which often occurs minutes after contact with the "hostile" substance (the allergen), the immune system also has the ability to allow certain cells (T cells) to react to substances - contact allergies are eliminated. Here the reaction often occurs only after hours or days. We an use different herbs in form of vegetables and fruits as a precautionary just like used by the Ayurveda Desi Herbal for the Treatments of Mardana Kamzori ka ilaj full.
Causes of Allergy
Why the immune system suddenly reacts is still unknown. Allergies are increasing all over the world - it is speculated as to whether, in addition to hereditary influences, the increasing pollution of the environment or the lack of germinal contact in the child's age are responsible. A total of more than 20000 allergenic substances are known: they can be inhaled , taken with food or as a drug and have contact with them through the skin - also involuntarily as with a wasp sting.
Pseudoallergic is distinguished from the allergic reaction, which shows symptoms similar to an allergy but already occurs on the first contact with a substance - without the body forming antibodies. Thus, people against salicylate (also against ASA ) often react pseudoallergically. On the other hand, the body reacts to substances which have a certain resemblance to the substance to which it has formed antibodies. In this case, people with birch pollen allergy often react to apples or nuts .
Typical symptoms in Allergies
An allergy can be associated with a variety of symptoms: swelling, itching and dilated blood vessels cause redness and conjunctivitis. There may be nasal congestion and a swollen nasal mucous membrane, which hinders breathing. When the lungs react with it, asthma arises : in the tense, swollen bronchia, tough mucus forms, which can only be cough badly. In addition, there is the typical, humming-gnawing asthma respiratory noise.
The skin of allergy sufferers itching and tension frequently, it is also dry and red: In the area of this eczema, the skin pattern changes from soft to coarse (especially strongly with a topic dermatitis). In addition, digestion problems with diarrhea , bloating, constipation or fullness in the area of the gastrointestinal tract are possible. In addition, the dilatation of the blood vessels can lead to serious circulatory problems - if the blood "spills" with a reaction running throughout the body, there is cardiovascular failure. This life-threatening situation is called anaphylactic shock; it often occurs in insect toxin allergies or after intravenous administration of certain drugs.
History (history of disease): All complaints can be further delimited by targeted questions - nevertheless, allergy diagnostics often remains detective work. Thus a morningly blocked nose can point to a house dust allergy and even pets can be blamed for so many allergies.
In various skin tests the most diverse substances are tested - redness, itching and a swelling indicate that the immune system really reacts to the substance. Unfortunately the skin tests are not always reliable.
Blood test: The concentration of immunoglobulin E in the blood indicates whether there is any allergy (RIST test), the more expensive RAST test confirms an allergy to a certain substance, if the skin test was noticeable before. In the case of a provocation test, the person concerned is deliberately confronted with the potentially allergic substance - because of the risk of a violent reaction (the anaphylactic shock), this is only rarely performed under medical supervision.
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